Agricultural risk management

ABSTRACT Smuggling is the illegal movement of goods across an international border in violation to custom laws and regulations. This activity exists in countries all over the world and incurs multiple ill effects to the country’s economy. Some of the economic impacts of smuggling include...
INTRODUCTION World climate is always changing. There are many evidences showing that the climate has changed in the past and will continue to change. The causes of this phenomenon are believed to be due to both natural variations and human intervention. Specifically, there are three external...
INTRODUCTION The agricultural sector is one of the most contributive sectors for the Indonesian economy. Because of its importance every farming and peasant business should be protected, especially in the face of various problems such as business uncertainty, price risk, crop failure, high cost...
INTRODUCTION Traditionally, agriculture is generally regarded as a high-risk industry because of its nature of being highly dependent on the climate and crop yields being easily influenced by adverse weather conditions (e.g., typhoons and rainstorms) and climate-associated damage (e.g., cold...
INTRODUCTION Performance of the food and agriculture is influenced by external shocks such as natural disasters (drought and flood), climate change, economic and financial crises, and socio-cultural disturbances.   International evidence shows that both intensity and frequency of the...