In recent years, the trend in coffee consumption has increased rapidly in various countries, especially in Indonesia. The government has predicted that there will be a significant increase in domestic coffee consumption in the coming years — the central government plans to increase the role of coffee commodities in the national and global circular economy. A central government with the Ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Trade, together, have the confidence to increase the value and quantity of exports through increasing productivity in the coming years through various regulations that have been mature and published. Unfortunately, based on the perspective of the downstream chain or farmers, the central government is less aware of various productivity and sustainability issues arising in the field. For decades, the national coffee production has indeed increased, but due to various issues such as land productivity, seed quality, human resource management strategies on coffee and even exchange rates, slowly and volatilely, there has been a decline in coffee production. The primary objective of this study is to provide a general analysis of coffee commodities at the national level with analysis of government regulations, provide information on applicable regulations, and pay attention to current issues that affect the conditions of coffee production. The policy review section aims to clarify the functions, responsibility, and consistency of the applicable regulation that offers the opportunity to engage with people involved in the Indonesian coffee development. At the end of this study, a section describes the draft plans and strategies of the central government in increasing the value of coffee commodities in the new 2020 cabinet.
Keywords: Indonesia coffee, sustainability issue, production, trade, coffee policy review
In the world of the international coffee trade, Indonesia is known as the fourth largest coffee producing country after Vietnam, Brazil, and Colombia (ICO, 2019). In the era of national economic sustainability through agricultural commodities, Indonesian coffee commodities are expected to be able to contribute to the leading foreign exchange for the country (Nasution et al., 2018). In addition to state revenue, coffee commodities are also expected to be able to improve the welfare of the community by employing people in the rural or central areas of coffee production.
Indonesian coffee commodities have long entered the competitive international market (Ibrahim & Zailani, 2010). Domestic and foreign consumers demand premium quality coffee beans. Moreover, there are Indonesia's biggest competitors, such as Vietnam and Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico). The Indonesian government encourages the Indonesian coffee industry to improve the quality of its coffee and its capacity to compete in the international market.
On the other side, Indonesia's coffee productivity is relatively lower compared with Vietnam and Brazil. The land productivity of Indonesian coffee plants has only reached 0.77 tons per hectare compared to the potential land area of 3 tons per hectare (Ministry of Agriculture, 2017). National coffee productivity has fallen in recent years since 2017, so there is an imbalance between the growth of national coffee consumption and the level of coffee production. Many issues and challenges affect coffee productivity; the key issues are the poor quality of human resources and ineffective central government strategy.
Along with the increasing consumption of world coffee, the quality of coffee from 75 coffee producing countries is very competitive. The coffee quality issues were raised by foreign exporters by certifying coffee products. The Indonesian local coffee farmers objected to the assessment because it tends to underestimate the importance of coffee quality. Generally, the small and medium farmers do not yet have adequate knowledge, processing technology and funding resources (House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia, 2020).
This study sets out an overview of coffee production, trading (export-import) value in Indonesia, a review of Indonesia's coffee policy, sustainability issues of coffee production, and the central government's strategy in 2020 to improve the quality and quantity of coffee production and the value of Indonesian coffee.
The research uses logical-theoretical research, analytical research, and observatory research approaches. The adoption of the logical-theoretical approach is cumulative of internal government data from the Indonesian coffee industry, government regulations, and internal reports on Indonesian commodities.
OVERVIEW OF INDONESIAN COFFEE INDUSTRY
Status of Indonesia’s coffee production
Coffee productivity in Indonesia seems to fluctuate from 1984 to 2019; on average, it tends to increase positively, with an average growth of 1.32% per year. Based on data from the Ministry of Agriculture in 2018, Indonesia's coffee production reached 674,636 tons. Also, the coffee productivity level in Indonesia over the past 25 years has, on average, tended to slowly increase, with an average growth of 1.14% per year (Ministry of Agriculture, 2018; Central Bureau of Statistics, 2019; Ministry of Agriculture, 2020).
In general, the types of coffee in Indonesia are divided into two, namely Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee (Agricultural Research and Development Agency, 2020). In 2018, of the total Indonesian coffee production, around 187,031 tons of Arabica coffee was produced or around 28% of the total national production. Robusta coffee production is 487,604 tons, or around 72% of the total national production (Ministry of Agriculture, 2018).
Although, on average, coffee production has grown positively in Indonesia, the industry’s growth is still considered very minimal and slow. Over the past 10 years, there has been a drastic decline, such as in 2011. With an average increase of 2.38%, coffee production was recorded at 633,900 tons, or down about 7% compared to production in 2010. From 2012 to 2015, coffee production continued to decline. In 2017 coffee production increased by 8.15% compared to 2016. Since 2018, there has been a drastic decline in the trade balance (refer to Graph 1). Many years of declining figures can be attributed to low productivity due to weather, lack of land rejuvenation, and inadequate national - regional government strategy (Ministry of Industry, 2012; Ministry of Agriculture, 2015; Ministry of Agriculture, 2020).
Net coffee exports are projected to increase by an average of 0.94% per year. Projected availability of coffee from 2019 to 2023 increased by an average of 2.02% per year (Ministry of Agriculture, 2020).
The structure of Indonesian coffee production
Coffee production based on the status of the business is dominated by smallholder farmers who cultivate the smallholder plantations, which has reached 94.61% share or the average production of 495,060 tons. Coffee production from state-owned estates and private estates is relatively small, contributing less than 6% or achieving a share of only 3.11% and 2.27% or average coffee production of 16,300 tons and 11,900 tons, respectively (Ministry of Agriculture, 2018).
The majority of Indonesia's coffee production centers are located in the provinces of Bengkulu, Aceh, South Sulawesi, East Java, Central Java, South Sumatra, North Sumatra, and Lampung.
The status of the coffee trade in Indonesia
The graph below (Figure 1) is the coffee export-import balance of the Indonesian coffee trade. Although fluctuating, export volume tends to be surplus because it is higher than the import volume, so the export value of Indonesian coffee is always higher than the import value. From 1980 to 2017, coffee exports increased by an average of 7.53% per year. The last 10 years of coffee trade is still experiencing a surplus with an average surplus of US$ 1,004.90 million, an average export value of US$ 1,049.79 million and an average import value of only US$ 44.89 million (refer to graph 1) (Ministry of Agriculture, 2018).
Status of coffee export performance
Indonesia's most significant coffee export market is the United States, which, in 2017, achieved a total export of 67,170 tons or reached a share of 16.43% with a total export value of US$269.05 million. The next export destination country is Germany, with a market share of 10.19%. Indonesia's importing countries for its coffee market with shares above 5% are Malaysia, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, and Egypt. Smaller-scale importers follow this are the UK, Belgium, and India.
Domestically, the development of coffee prices at the producer level in several markets over the past 10 years is very volatile. The average shows an average upward trend of 7.06% per year. For example, the price of Robusta coffee producers in 2008 reached IDR13,722 (US$98 cents) per kilogram. And in 2017, it costs IDR24,802 (US$1.77) per kilogram. The most significant increase in coffee prices in 2017 was 25.18% and is expected to continue to increase in line with market demand.
COFFEE POLICY REVIEW
This section outlines all regulations relating to all activities of growing coffee plants, production, processing of coffee beans, to the sale of coffee on a national scale. This policy review section uses a summary of procedures from the study reference (Chehab, 2017; Fischer & Miller, 2019), with three steps: 1. Policy analysis by collecting all applicable regulations on Indonesian coffee commodities; 2. Using Literature Review and data analysis with consideration of its impact on other policies and administration; and 3. Close consultation with the Ministry of Trade, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, and House of Representatives as a public policymaker to clarify the draft and interpretation.
Indonesia coffee trade policy
The Indonesian government established the Regulation of the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia Number 80 the Year of 2019 (Replacement of No. 109 the Year of 2018) concerning provisions on the export of coffee in order to provide legal certainty and support the effectiveness of the implementation of coffee exports. It guides the business players to do the legal registration process for Indonesian coffee products, which includes green coffee beans, roasted coffee beans, and processed coffee products for export purposes. This regulates the simplification of Indonesian coffee export procedures using the full online system established by the Minister of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia with references from the International Coffee Organization.
The principal regulations and other derivatives that are interrelated with coffee trading from Indonesia, such as taxation, export provisions, national quality standards, certification process to branding, are shown below.
- Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 the Year of 1994 concerning Ratification of the Agreement on the Establishment of the World Trade Organization. This provision is the primary reference for the provisions of international trade. Indonesia is a member of the World Trade Organization and must comply with this agreement in regulating all new regulations on exports and imports.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia Number 13 / M-DAG / PER / 3/2012 concerning General Provisions in the Export Sector. This regulation is the parent regulation of all Ministry of Trade regulations regarding the export of all products made in Indonesia. They are governing export procedures, documentation, and product requirements.
- Decree of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Indonesia Number 164 / MPP / Kep / 6/1996 concerning Obligatory Quality Control for Certain Exported Products. This decree is a parent of quality standardization provisions for all products for export. All planned or proposed changes to the new regulation will refer to the parent regulation.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia Number 87 / M-IND / PER / 10/2014 concerning Mandatory Imposition of Indonesian National Standards of Instant Coffee Products. This regulation regulates food safety standards and instant coffee production as processed food products for coffee.
- Government Regulation Number 81 the Year 2015 concerning Import and Imposition of Value Added Tax. This regulation is a change that requires that coffee products are no longer free of Value Added Tax. Until March 2020, coffee products for trade still are subject to a value-added tax of 10%.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24 the Year of 2018 concerning provisions on the certificate of origin of Indonesian products. This provision regulates the coffee products, which are classified into several groups such as roasted or green bean, Robusta or Arabica, caffeinate or non-caffeinate, ground coffee or whole beans, pure coffee beans, or containing essence/concentrate, and pure instant coffee or instant coffee plus sugar.
While other provisions concerning the production and trade of coffee products or processed coffee products for domestic usage are regulated in the regulations below.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia Number 77 the Year of 2018 concerning Electronic Integrated Licensing Services in the Field of Trade. This regulation is up to date and applies now to regulate complete procedures and procedures for online licensing coffee products for export and import.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia No. 24 the Year of 2018 concerning Provisions and Procedures for the Issuance of Certificate of Origin for Goods from Indonesia.
- Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia No. 89 / Permentan / OT.140 / 2013 concerning Operational Standards for Procedures for Establishing Seed Source Farms, Seed Certification, and Evaluation of Coffee Source Seed Estates.
- Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 the Year of 1984 concerning Industry, Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 98 / Permentan / OT.140 / 2/2013 concerning Guidelines for Plantation Business Licensing, Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 10 the Year of 1995 concerning Customs and Number 15 the Year of 2001 concerning Brands.
Indonesian coffee planting and production policy
On the side of production and planting of coffee commodities, the central government, through the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Industry, together formulate provisions in order to regulate the coffee production process to comply with quality standards such as cultivation systems (Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 the Year of 2004 concerning Plantations and Number 12 the Year of 1992 concerning Plant Cultivation Systems), racing towards environmentally friendly standards of good practice for human resources, Good Agriculture Practices (GAPs) (Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia No. 49 / Permentan / OT.140 / 2/2014 concerning Technical Guidelines for Good Coffee Practices on Coffee), and best practices for post-harvest handling system (Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 52 / Permentan / OT.140 / 9/2012 Concerning Guidelines for Handling Post-Harvest Coffee).
According to the law, it must refer to the conception of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the management of resources for agricultural businesses in meeting human food needs while concurrently maintaining the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. The essential features of GAPs are sustainable natural resources and stability in the overall system of ecosystems, economy, and welfare of local farmers guaranteed, fair distribution of resources and power in community life; respect for all-natural resources and human resources; the flexibility of the community in adjusting to changes in farming conditions.
GAPs contain many factors and provisions in the coffee production process, which also will be used as the necessary certification of the Indonesian National Standards — concerning the sustainability of coffee production, currently developing a variety of trading practices initiated by coffee consumers. Specific consumers demand certified coffee, for example, Fairtrade Certification, Organic Certificate, Common Code for Coffee Community (4C), Rainforest Alliance, and Bird Friendly. All of these systems emphasize the clarity of origin (traceability) and sustainability. The principles of sustainability as it applies to coffee are: environmentally sustainable, economically viable, and socially acceptable.
Based on this provision, to realize the success of coffee agribusiness development according to GAPs, the government is responsible for disseminating information through extension, guidance, assistance, and counseling, and development must be based on commitment and determination by stakeholders according to authority and responsibility (Ministry of Agriculture Regulation, 2014).
- Low national coffee productivity. The consumption of national coffee is rapidly increased in the last five years, which is an average of 8.8% per year, but it imbalanced with the growth of domestic production growth, which tends to be stagnant or even negative, on average -0.3% annually. As happened in 2018, the volume of coffee imports in Indonesia from January to September 2018 increased dramatically, reaching 524% (Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, 2018). The productivity of coffee farmers tends to be lower than the potential land, which is 0.53 tons per hectare of the total potential of two tons per hectare for Robusta coffee and 0.55 tons per hectare of 1.5 tons for Arabica coffee. Compared to the potential land for coffee production in Vietnam is around 3 tons per hectare (Ministry of Agriculture, 2020).
The low national productivity is caused by problems in facilities and infrastructure and low human resource skills. The low productivity is due to the use of low-quality seedlings and weak pest management system, low quality coffee beans due to minimal post-harvest handling, weak farmer institutions, limited partnerships between farmers and industry, technology and information dissemination minimal, inefficient trade management, and limited access to capital for coffee farm maintenance.
- There is the imbalance of coffee trade chain revenue. Millions of coffee farmers in Indonesia depend their lives on coffee as their primary source of income. However, in terms of income, traders, companies producing instant coffee, and the gastronomy industry are the ones who obtain the most benefit from the coffee trade (Neilson, 2008; Anggraini et al., 2014). The income of Indonesian farm laborers is minimal because there is no absolute legal protection for coffee commodity workers. The price of national coffee can correlate directly with welfare or poverty.
- The study of Sri, 2018, and Ibnu et al. 2019 also illustrates the inadequate potential for promoting local legalization for coffee production in Indonesia. Weak government support for the certification of coffee beans in Indonesia so that the stigma of farmers about the certification process is very challenging (because of the perceived ambiguous and complicated government regulations). The implementation of coffee certification in Indonesia still depends on foreign intermediaries and specialized organizations that are less accessible.
Central Government Strategy Draft Plan 2020
To this day, the respective central government is in the process of designing activities and strategies to improve the quality and quantity of Indonesian coffee production in 2020. The new administration of the Ministry (Working Cabinet II) and the House of Representatives devise vital points, as described in this section.
- Improve the quality and quantity of coffee beans for export. The Indonesian government is planning a particular program or regulation on the development of cooperation for the export of Indonesian coffee products. The government is developing seven strategic commodities (coffee, cocoa, coconut, cashew, pepper, nutmeg, and vanilla) to achieve a three-fold export target for 2020-2024. In 2020, the Ministry of Agriculture also released an exclusive People's Business Credit Program distribution for coffee farmers totaling IDR3.96 trillion (US$280 million).
- Improve the quality of human resources in coffee. Domestically, to support the success of government programs, new regulations will strengthen the position of national coffee producer organizations. There are three forms of farmer organizations: cooperatives, farmer groups, and farmer organizations whose positions are unbalanced (in terms of production, economy, and skills). The Ministry of Agriculture should be able to arrange and gather them for cooperation with the formation of national-level organizations, to distribute human resource skills and information. The Director-General of Small, Medium, and Various Industries of the Ministry of Industry supports the domestic small and medium processed coffee enterprise with various government programs and subsidies.
- Improve the quality of coffee and processed products. Develop the differentiation of quality coffee products to increase the added value of Arabica coffee, especially at the level of local farmers. Efforts to improve products must be aligned with the Ministry of Agriculture's programs such as incentive programs for quality seeds, adequate fertilizers and pesticides, and rejuvenation of coffee plantations. In 2020, the central government supports increasing Arabica coffee production rather than Robusta.
- Improve coffee extension for a sustainable environment. The Environmental Bureau promotes a coffee-based agroforestry system by creating community forestry programs. It can be continued as part of broader initiatives to improve hydrological functions on degraded lands. Various agroforestry systems can help minimize the impact of coffee cultivation on the environment, increase the benefits of ecosystems, and contribute to better risk management for the welfare of rural populations. The Ministry of Forestry is ultimately responsible for managing community forestry programs in Indonesia and can be supported to ensure that necessary regulatory reforms are implemented. This can be accompanied by an active community support program for the development of coffee-based agroforestry in certain locations, and the provision of specific technical guidance in the coffee sector.
- Improve the value of marketing Indonesian coffee products. The government promotes value by highlighting the uniqueness of coffee products based on the region, such as the world's best-known coffee from Indonesia, including Javanese coffee, Toraja coffee, Gayo coffee, Sidikalang coffee, Lintong coffee, Bali coffee, Wamena coffee, and Luwak (Civet) coffee. The Deputy of Marketing for the Creative Economy Agency has a different approach to driving exports of Indonesian coffee to foreign countries by increasing the brand and added value of the coffee.
- Improve communication between the central government and regional governments. The government will increase communication media efforts to facilitate the distribution of news from the center directly to the people or local farmers.
- Improve the area of coffee cultivation. Indonesian Coffee Exporters Association (AEKI), Indonesian farmers together with relevant ministries plan to expand Indonesian coffee plantations, while rejuvenating old plantations through intensification programs.
- Ministry of Agriculture Program.
Since the central issue in Indonesian plantations is the lack of regulation and structure to support quality human resources. Instant solutions to problems that hamper national coffee production and productivity are regulations that govern the collaboration of local research and education institutions and private sector participation. Second, is assistance from educational institutions or universities in the form of education in communities about sustainable agriculture, training for coffee farmers following Good Agriculture Practices, and simplifying legal issues related to coffee certification. The possible recommended efforts are the following:
- Provide information and guidance on Good Agricultural Practices for sustainable coffee in the community and organization level;
- Assist rural communities in managing legal administration for coffee certification (Iman & Relig, 2019);
- Motivate agricultural education institutions to further develop independent research for the sustainable community through agribusiness that might be implemented in the field;
- Protect local coffee farmers in terms of income and labor. Through community and educational institutions might avoid trade monopoly or unhealthy actions by coffee intermediaries; and
- Improve the ministerial bureaucracy to simplify the certification and legalization process. The coffee certification process needs support from the government, political parties, and higher education institutions.
Colombia, Brazil, and Vietnam are the largest producers and exporters of coffee in the world. Indonesia ranks fourth in the world. Indonesian coffee bean production is Arabica and Robusta. In the international arena, besides producing regular coffee, Indonesia also produces several specialty coffees. The most famous of these unique coffees are Luwak (civet) coffee, Toraja coffee, Aceh coffee, and Mandailing coffee. Civet coffee is the most famous type of coffee because it is known as the most expensive coffee in the world.
Indonesia has tremendous potential in coffee production. However, coffee production is always fluctuating. Apart from being caused by low national coffee productivity, the declining quality of coffee commodity production, which continues to drag on, has an impact on the weak export of coffee products. The decline in the quality of garden products is due to the absence of farmer education, such as International coffee certification. As a result, the quality of export coffee products does not meet the specifications of the importing country and lowers the price of coffee and Indonesian coffee products.
As a solution, the central government focuses on coffee as Indonesia's leading commodity. The strategies and plans that continue to be carried out to increase the value and selling price of coffee for exports include: improve the quality of coffee beans, increase human resources or coffee farmers, infrastructure, and improve government regulations to support coffee farmers and the amount of production.
In the policy review section, this study has elaborated on how the previous government devised strategies in developing Indonesian coffee commodities and is useful to be fundamental, and in concluding on how the government plays a role in fostering the main domestic commodities.
The central government, through the Ministries of Agriculture, Trade, and Industry, focuses on increasing the amount of coffee production, increasing human resources, and improving the quality of Arabica coffee beans. The regulation of the results of the new government draft was indeed the result of a simplification process from the previous cabinet. In this Working Cabinet II year, the central government consistently helps coffee farmers by providing many incentives and programs. Coffee production 2020 predicted will increase by 1.94% or 14,180 tons compared to 2019. Until 2023, production will continue to increase with a commitment to increase planting area and coffee productivity.
Thanks to the staff at the Ministry of Trade, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, and the House of Representatives for supporting the idea, validity, and clarification of government regulations for the success of this research.
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