FFTC Journal of Agricultural Policy

Agri-Food Systems under and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic

The adaptation of slaughtering and meat cutting processes to the COVID-19 risk situation resulted in an estimated capacity reduction of 15% compared to the pre-coronavirus period. As a consequence, a bottleneck effect occurred in the pig meat value chain. Reducing imports of live animals and increasing exports could decrease, but not eliminate the resulting surplus of live pigs. At the end of 2020, the number of pigs waiting to be slaughtered was estimated at approximately one million and due to this surplus German standard quality pig prices dropped by roughly 12%. Moreover, farmers faced price cuts as a result of pigs being overweight, additional feeding costs from pigs remaining on farms, and foregone profits because stables could not be used for further production. The COVID-19 effects were accompanied by the outbreak of African swine fever in Germany and subsequent export
Japan’s food industry relies on foreigners in two ways. First, foreign tourists’ demands for Japanese foods have been increasing. Second, Japan’s new policy for accepting foreign workers is mitigating the labor shortage in the food industry. However, COVID-19 caused a suspension of cross-border movements and made the international community more aware of the possible emergence of new viruses. Thus, restrictions on cross-border movements will continue even after the eradication of COVID-19. Therefore, Japan’s food industry must find a new strategy for stimulating food demands and mitigating labor shortage. Keywords: inbound tourism, labor shortage, Tokyo Olympic Games, technical intern trainee, specified skilled worker, disguised student
The COVID-19 novel coronavirus spread around the world since December 2019. The first official case in Myanmar was reported on March 23rd, 2020 where the first set of containment measures was introduced. In Myanmar, COVID-19 infection rate was low at the 1st wave but at the 2nd wave, confirmed cases increased in the months of August, September and October, 2020 while the 3rd wave came recently on June 2021 where infection rate is at first low, however, it became more serious on July 2021 compared to the previous one. Nowadays, the COVID-19 pandemic is causing an unprecedented challenge to the Government of Myanmar and populations across the country. Myanmar’s agricultural GDP growth forecast for FY2020/21 will be downward to -1.8%. The spread of the COVID-19 is placing huge pressure on health systems but it is also having social and economic impacts on across all sectors including food
This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on agriculture and rural development in Viet Nam, with a focus on smallholder farmers and vulnerable rural people. Using contextual analysis, the paper, which based on a quick survey of 12 provinces in the country, provides a panorama of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impacts on agriculture and rural development. Findings of the quick survey on the pandemic impacts on rural households’ livelihoods, including agricultural and non-agricultural production activities are followed by identifying priority areas for government policy intervention to mitigate the adverse impacts of the pandemic. Findings of the survey show a wide range decrease in the income of rural households in Viet Nam since the COVID-19 pandemic occurred, in which non-farming income dropped the most, households in border provinces and poor
The COVID-19 pandemic shakes nearly all industries and sectors across the globe. The very reason that the agricultural and food sector is recognized as the essential business also make it comparatively vulnerable to the strike of the pandemic that requires limited movement regulation and stringent social distancing measure to contain the spread of virus. This paper attempts to provide a bird’s-eye view of the trends and evolution in the agriculture and food market as well as the impacted stakeholders along the supply chain under the pandemic in the United States and the European Union. Focus industries include dairy, meat, fruits, vegetables, and wine. We present various policy responses and implementations across these two continents on the same page in this article, parallel with the fluctuations in the marketplace, which aim to help correct or adjust both the short-run and structural
This paper reviews Taiwan’s New South Bound Policy. The main analysis outlines the areas, particularly in agriculture, in which Taiwan can strengthen its partnership with ASEAN countries and India. It is a review paper that carries out interpretive work on prevailing measures and initiatives and contextualizes them in a regional perspective with selected examples that does not pretend to be comprehensive. The paper concludes with a discussion on other potential areas of collaboration related to smart cities. It would be helpful for understanding the potential importance for Taiwan’s partnership with ASEAN and possibly other Asian countries, including China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Taiwan’s New Southbound policy intends to intensify the partnership between Taiwan and ASEAN/India in the field of agriculture to help New Southbound Policy countries to meet their (and global) growing
The food industry significantly contributed to the industrial GDP of Thailand with a strong backward linkage to the agricultural sector, the foundation of Thai economy. In general, Thai households have spent 33.9% of total expenditures on foods and beverages. Previously, Thai consumers focused on emotional value over than functional value since preferences and tastes became the major factors affecting their decisions to consume food products, rather than cleanliness and nutrition. The COVID-19 pandemic had not only brought a serious effect on the lives and livelihoods of people, but also the food consumption of the Thai people. During the spread of COVID-19 pandemic since January 2020, it was found that consumer behaviors were starting to shape the so-called “New Normal” lifestyles. The crisis, however, affected many consumers to change their behavior and their new experiences as shift
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe, highly infectious form of pneumonia that has spread worldwide, changing lifestyles and dietary habits. This, in turn, has affected the agricultural sales and transport, including those involving Taiwanese agricultural products. This study summarized how Taiwan’s agricultural and horticultural products have been influenced by the pandemic. It also examined the revitalization policies adopted by Taiwan’s Agriculture and Food Agency (AFA) for the flower industry in response to such changes. In addition, this study explored the agricultural arrangements that can be feasibly adopted in the face of the extreme economic distress caused by the pandemic. Keywords: COVID-19, Flower Industry, Taiwan’s Agriculture and Food Agency (AFA)
The COVID-19 virus met Germany, like the rest of Europe relatively unprepared. With the rising number of infections, the government implemented a first round of lockdown starting from mid-March up to mid-May 2020. A second round of lockdown lasting from early November 2020 up to the end of May 2021 followed. Just shops selling food stuff could stay open, while all shops providing “non-essential” goods and services had to be closed. Schools and kindergartens had to be closed as well and most people were advised to work from home. The government adopted a large number of financial support measures to keep companies going. Overall, the economy witnessed a steep decline, particularly during the second quarter, but it is gradually recovering since then. There had been a few incidences of COVID-19 outbreaks on farms, but these were restricted to fruit and vegetables farms which are highly
The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a global pandemic with high number of cases and deaths in numerous countries. Indonesia has recorded as high case fatality rate of 8.03% which needs to be prevented through appropriate policy response, particularly the Presidential Regulation Number 21/2020 on Large-scale Social Restrictions. This policy is implemented since the COVID-19 has an impact on human life socially and economically including the agricultural sector. The government of Indonesia has issued some control measure policy responses including economic stimulus packages towards preventing the spread of the COVID-19 virus. However, the effectiveness of policy depends upon the length of its implementation which should remain in place and the sustainability and consistency commitments of all stakeholders in the country. In the long-term, a strategy to develop a much
During the COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic era, the behaviors and patterns of agricultural production have changed enormously. Labor shortages and supply chain disruption caused trouble to agricultural operations. Furthermore, how the tasks of smart agriculture affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is of concern. For example, the fragility of food supply chain has increased, thus leading each country to re-emphasize food security and strive to increase domestic food production. In order to solve labor shortages, more automation technologies will be introduced into the production system. The business model of "remote behavior" and "home economy" has emerged. Also, the traditional offline businesses will gradually be replaced by novel online ones. Consumers began to pay attention to local and healthy foods, and were expecting more on food safety and traceability. Each country continues to
The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in South Korea has significantly raised the perceived risk of people about the new epidemic. Consumers’ perceived risks made them reluctant to make face-to-face contact, changing their food consumption behavior. Knowing the changes in the food industry caused by COVID-19 can help plan mid- to long-term measures in the future. In this regard, we examined how consumers’ tendency to avoid face-to-face contact changed their food consumption behaviors, and impacted on food-related industries. Our study shows that offline food consumption is expected to decrease overall while online food consumption is expected to increase. However, some offline channels such as convenience stores and marts nearby residences, the number of visitors would increase. The study also shows that eating out consumption would decrease while delivery and takeout consumption would
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