Agricultural Education System in Thailand: Policy and Direction towards Sustainable Development Goals

Agricultural Education System in Thailand: Policy and Direction towards Sustainable Development Goals

Published: 2021.06.01
Accepted: 2021.05.30
33
Department of Agricultural Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
Department of Agricultural Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

ABSTRACT

The facilitation of agricultural education in Thailand has been in existence and practiced for more than 100 years. This has been conducted in three forms: formal education; non-formal education; and informal education. There are three levels of agricultural education: basic education; vocational education; and higher education and each level has different objectives. However, the facilitation of agricultural education is under the philosophy of learning based on actual practices and the philosophy of sufficiency economy. As a subject in basic education, agriculture promotes basic knowledge and skills as well as good attitude of students. For vocational education level, the College of Agriculture and Technology plays roles in agricultural teaching/learning which aims to prepare graduates to do farming or other related fields. Meanwhile, agricultural education in higher education aims to develop the body of knowledge, innovation and technology transfer. The reduction of disparity in people’s education and the rapid changes that happened in the 21st century have impacted agriculture and agricultural education. Hence, there are guidelines for Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs in 2030 as set by the United Nations. These put the importance on the development of learners to be skillful and be adaptable to cope with rapid changes. Besides, the system of agricultural education facilitation must focus on education service and knowledge/innovation together in order to promote sustainable development in agriculture.

Keywords: Agricultural Education, Vocational Education in Agriculture, Sustainable Development Goals

INTRODUCTION

Education is an important task of a social system. This is because it is a measure used for developing quality of life of a society’s members who attempts to create a happy society. Part of the royal address of king Bhumibol Adulyadej states that “…Whether our country’s future will be progressive or not depends mainly on the education of our people. Outcomes of today’s training will be an indicator of the future of our country.” Therefore, it can be said that a livelihood condition of people in any society reflects effectiveness of educational facilitation in society (Kaewdang, 2000). From the past to present, Thai society has faced many problems, e.g. poverty, social expansion, social inequality, exploitation, corruption, weak political system, incomplete political system, etc. However, the government sector has a policy to successively develop educational facilitation in the country. This includes educational reforms, achievements and impacts of the educational system (Sahaskul et al., 2015). Hence, education is a key tool for the development of people across the world on the basis of political and living standards. In other words, it is like a tool used for enhancing potential of human resource based on body, mind and intellect. That is, it is the development of people on the basis of knowledge, understanding about various academic matters, critical and analytical thinking, desirable behavior, creating correct attitudes and codes of conduct.

In addition, education is the holistic development of human resource. The definition of education may be broadly considered rather than only knowledge or intellect. As a matter of fact, education must not overlook other dimensions of human beings. This is particularly applicable on subjects like ethics, virtue, shared value, etc. which an educated person can transfer to others for their self-development in terms of potential and code of conduct (Suchajanan, 2011; Tansiri, 2007; Akkaraborworn, 2002; and Hirunyakan et al., 1997). Aside from this, education is important to develop other aspects of well-being. Education is therefore a very important foundation of creativity, progress, social problems solution, etc. This is because education is a process assisting people to develop themselves for a better quality of life. Importantly, the 12th National Social and Economic Development Plan (2017- 2021) puts an importance on the educational facilitation for the development of knowledge and skills value of people in f the 21st century; education for increased effective management; taking care of the elderly; reduction of a risk factor on health; social participation in educational facilitation, etc.

The National Education Plan (2017-2036) sets a target frame and direction of educational facilitation in Thailand for developing potential and capability of people in the country through lifelong learning. This can be done through the course of action under the consistency with the philosophy of sufficiency economy and changes in the 21st century (Office of the Education Council, 2017). According to the National Education Plan and the National Society and Economic Development Plan, the consistent goals is the development of quality human resource (Human capital). This is primarily under the responsibility of the public sector and concerned agencies. When this development achieves the goals as set, many benefits will occur for the country’s sustainable development. Suchajanan (2011) stated about the importance and benefits of education that educational facilitation will have an effect on the learner (Private benefits) and the society (Social benefits). This includes financial and non-financial-related aspects: 1) Benefits of education related to incomes of the learner. That is, it is an increase in yields and incomes for a happy life, and 2) Benefits of education related to society on the basis of finance. It connotes that increase in yields could have an effect on society but not related to finance. In other words, people as part of society can have a better livelihood more than before, and as a consequence, crimes are reduced, as well as birth rate of the population, etc.

THE FACILITATION OF EDUCATION IN THAILAND

Educational facilitation in Thailand can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Formal education - There is the determination of clear objectives and goals, studying methods, curriculum and time span, management and evaluation as conditions of graduation.

2. Non-formal education – It is the educational facilitation which is flexible in terms of determination of objectives, form, methods of educational facilitation, studying time span, and measurement and evaluation. The curriculum and learning content must be appropriate and consistent with context, resources, problem conditions and needs of an individual or a group of learners.

3. Informal education – It is the educational facilitation which gives an opportunity to learners to learn by themselves based on their interests, readiness, and opportunities. They can learn from individual experiences, the society, environmental conditions, media and other sources of knowledge. (Office of the Education Council, 2017).

Suchajanan (2011) claimed that the facilitation of basic education up to higher education has different goals as follows: 1) The facilitation of basic education is the education before higher education in which the former is under the supervision of the office of Basic Education Commission. Time span of basic education is not less than 12 years which aims to uplift basic knowledge of people; 2) The facilitation of vocational education is between basic education and higher education. That is, students who finish lower secondary education can pursue these studies in the vocational certificate level (A-3-year program) and then they can be enrolled in higher vocational certificate level (A-2-year program) (Poungsuk, 2020a). It aims to prepare skillful workforce in various fields of occupations after graduation. The vocational education is under the supervision of the office of Vocational Education Commission. The facilitation of vocational facilitation aims to make graduates sufficiently skilled and be part of the workforce in various fields after graduation; and 3) The facilitation of higher education which is under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation. The Ministry is responsible for the promotion, support, and supervision of higher education, science, research and innovative creation for community development. Higher education consists of two levels: lower degree; and degree levels (Government Gazette, 2019). In addition, facilitation education is lifelong learning which lets the learner learn by themselves. It could happen anywhere with aims to eliminate ignorance and to promote a code of conduct which could be changed at all times and could be developed continually (Metkarunchit, 2010).

From the above mentioned, it can be seen that the education system from the basic level to the high education level, focuses on the general and professional areas according to their aptitude. However, as the world changes rapidly, so does education management. Therefore, the education management must be changed in the future and must apply technology in teaching and learning to develop the learners and everyone has the opportunity to access education (Ingard, S., 2020). The future of era of Thailand 5.0 and Education 5.0 must use the following five elements in education management:

1)  Big Data: the teaching of the future will require big data for analysis and synthesize data. It is to be used in teaching and learning with Big Data as a base for applying existing data to teaching and learning. Educational management in the relevant departments must manage big data in the most beneficial way;

2) IoT: The Internet of Things is an essential support for future learning. Therefore, education management aims to benefit quality, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and are up-to-date for both current and future changes;

3) Distance Learning: the educational institutes and related institutions have to make further use of the distance learning education system to promote and support education for the purpose of equality reduction of educational disparity, making it possible for anyone to study anytime, anywhere.

4) Hardware, Software, and Methodology (the adoption of new methods of teaching and learning in the form of audio-visual aids): Electronic devices and materials such as Smartphone Mobile Learning Application Learning (SMLAL) supports additional skills such as creative thinking, research, teaching, and learning. The real-time or online anytime, anywhere, everyone at the same time, and Virtual Reality development learning in a simulation environment that can be seen, heard, touched, to create an atmosphere of learning is like a virtual world and makes learners acquire digital skills. It is modern education management that requires digital skills.

5) AI: Artificial Intelligence is the future of education that will play a role in teaching and learning. It automates teaching and learning management by relying on information from AI to be added in the absence of teachers. It can promote further individuality, and is able to promote teaching and learning as a resource of education that is worthwhile.  

It can be said that when the world changes, technology changes, too. It is imperative that teaching and learning management has to change by changing the policy and practice, although the principles are good, the policy is good, if the stakeholders or practitioners are not willing to change on teaching and learning, education management would remain the same. If it is changed quickly and drastically, it must combine modern management with executives at all levels within the management based on current technology and future technology. Therefore, teaching and learning at present and in the future must be changed by adopting modern management methods with technologies. More importantly, everyone has access to education anytime, anywhere, throughout their entire lives. For it to be efficient, quality, value addition, and sustainability must all be in place.

THE FACILITATION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

Formal educational facilitation is being conducted in Thailand side by side with agricultural education. In 1901, it was the start of the development of agricultural education. Indeed, agricultural education is a great science which is important to agricultural development and the production of manpower for developing the country (Siriwan, 2014). The facilitation of agricultural education has been developed continually in all systems of the educational facilitation in Thailand. Each level of agricultural education has objectives which are consistent and related to each other as follows:

1. Regarding the facilitation of basic education, there is agricultural education in the curriculum of both elementary and secondary education. In other words, it is found in core courses and courses organized by educational establishments. Agriculture subjects of basic education have easy contents which can be applied to life activities such as crop growing, animal domestication, aquatic animal rearing, pet rearing, etc. This aims to enhance knowledge, understanding and basic experiences on daily life work based on skills and tools used, work process, systematic work, teamwork, etc. It also promotes self-reliance, creative thinking and good work process.

Most of the success cases of agricultural education in this level were found on the success in organizing agricultural learning centers, such as the Living Agriculture Learning Center (LALC) in Praibuengwittayakom high school, Srisaket province (Saduak et. al., 2019) and Organic Agriculture Learning Center (OALC) in Dong Salao elementary school, Dan Chang District, Suphanburi Province (Poungsuk et. al., 2018) by providing a continuous and effective corporation education between the school and the community. These can create real experiences for students and the students can practice it at home together with family members. Parents are involved in enhancing students' experiences and teachers, students, and parents are also creating a system for developing collaborative learning via Line and Facebook platforms to improve their knowledge, skills, and their own work. (Poungsuk et al., 2019). In other successful cases of teaching/learning in agriculture by using learning center for special students, those who have physical or mental deficiencies in Phrae Panyanukul School, Phrae Province. This gives students experiences that can help shape their behavior, improve basic living skills which can help themselves when they return home with their parents. (Kruadsungnoen, 2018)

2. The facilitation of vocational education can be found in the college of Agriculture and Technology in the four regions of Thailand. It focuses on future career preparation of students as well as good attitude towards agricultural careers. For higher vocational certificate students, they must choose a specific course as their major subjects such as Plant Science, Animal Science, Agro Industry, Agricultural Mechanics, Business Administration, and Business Computer. In 2013, there was the establishment of Agricultural Vocational Institute comprising the College of Agriculture and Technology in the four regions of Thailand, including three Fisheries Colleges (Government Gazette, 2013). The Agricultural Vocational Institute is responsible for the facilitation of agricultural teaching and learning in bachelor’s degree level and below (Vocational Certificate, Higher Vocational Certificate and Bachelor of Technology). There is the cooperation with private sectors in and outside the country for skills and knowledge development.

The success case in the management of education includes international agricultural student exchange programs in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, such as the Cooperation Program Teaching and Learning in Diploma Programs in Plant Science between the Office of Vocational Education Commission and Arava International Center for Agriculture Training (AICAT), Israel. This has been in operation since 1998 to develop teachers and students to train and develop their skills and experiences in advanced technology and innovation in agriculture management with 11 months of on-farm training in Israel out of 40 in the first generation, and more than the current 150 per generation. Three preparatory centers were opened, namely Roi Et College of Agriculture and Technology, Maha Sarakham, and Si Sa Ket. And that experience is passed on to farmers, which will be a guideline for the development of the agricultural profession of Thailand (Sisaket College of Agriculture and Technology. 2021). In addition, there is also the success of an ongoing short-term training program in agricultural and related occupations.

However, Thailand is a country suitable for occupation in agriculture because of biological diversity, topography, and climatic conditions. All these can produce more food and raw materials for the industry. Thailand is considered an export country in terms of agricultural products and related raw materials to support needs of peoples around the world. Therefore, it cannot be denied that it is the real main source of income besides tourism. Also, it has a variety of professions related to agriculture that creates stability for the people in the country. But it is accepted that the trend of popularity in the fields of agriculture has been declining. It may be because of the income-related incentives of the occupation, and changes in technology, and other reasons. Which in this current year students are enrolled in agricultural vocational education institutions in both the public and private sectors at the Vocational Certificate in the field of Agriculture with 20,661 students, Fisheries 463 students, High Vocational Certificate in the field of Agriculture with 8,778 students, Fisheries 1,418 students, and Bachelor's degree in Technology in the field of Agriculture with 473 students, Fishery 74 students as shown in Table 1.

3. The facilitation of education in agriculture at the higher education level (Bachelor’s degrees and higher): In 2003, the Ministry of University Affairs was included in the Ministry of Education. Meanwhile, some educational institutions were uplifted to be a university (24 public universities, 51 private universities, 41 Rajabhat universities and 55 Rajamangala universities at present) (Office of the Higher Education Commission, 2013). At present, all higher education institutions are under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, Science Research and Innovation. It is also responsible for the educational facilitation in agriculture (Formal education, non-formal education and informal education). At this education level, there is considerable success in providing education, especially in research work to develop a body of  knowledge related to agricultural production, value-addition, new marketing models, etc. and related areas by focusing on the development of innovation and appropriate technology through the cooperation of knowledge development under the implementation of the Faculty of Agriculture and other related fields. This has educational institutions at this level scattered in every region of the country which will be able to develop appropriate knowledge, innovation, and technology that can be suitable to use in the area effectively. Another important role in this education level is the development of knowledge, innovation, and advanced technology within the development and changing of the world society from technology 4.0, which is stepping into the future of Technology 5.0. Thailand is going to a fully 5G innovative country, so it is an important mission to provide education at this level in order to develop the manpower that could help in achieving a sound educational management at both the basic education  and vocational levels, and tertiary level in different shapes so that the country can develop to keep up with the changes of the future .

PHILOSOPHY OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND THAI AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

The facilitation of agricultural education concerns agriculture in various fields of studies. It is well accepted that more than one-half of Thai people in the country are engaged in agriculture ranging from production, processing, packaging and marketing. It is essential that those who are involved in these processes be knowledgeable and skillful. Indeed, agricultural work involves crop and animal domestication which needs more care. Therefore, those who are engaged in agriculture must have knowledge, skills and experiences for effective agricultural production and reduction of damages. Importantly, the facilitation of agricultural education must have philosophy, principles and various theories. The philosophy of agricultural education and Thai agricultural education is under a framework that cuts across past to the present. Sa-nguansi (2008), Thanapanyachatchawong (1988), Udomsin (2008), Srisuantang et al. (2014) and Siriwan (2014) defined the philosophy of agricultural education as a belief about a practice guideline in making the learner obtain the knowledge and capability to do farming efficiently. In other words, the philosophy of agricultural education is a guideline for practice of concurred personnel in agricultural education in order to achieve the goals of agricultural education facilitation. Importantly, Agriculture teachers must realize and emphasize that “Learning is by doing in the actual situation” (Pragmatism). The school is an academic source in agriculture of the community. People in the community are encouraged to participate in the facilitation of agricultural education which is continuing education. Some academics set ideas and beliefs about the philosophy of agricultural education. (Figure 1.)

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE FACILITATION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THAILAND

The current world development changes rapidly, which makes the present Thai government determine a policy on the country’s development under the nation’s strategic framework (2023-2036). It is a master plan of the country’s development and is aligned with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This includes restructuring of the country leading to Thailand 4.0 and the country’s reform issue. Furthermore, it puts the importance on participation of development party of all sectors in order to attain development. Not only this, participation in the preparation of details of the development plan’s strategy leads to “Security, Prosperity and Sustainability.” Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education prepared the 12th National Social and Economic Development Plan (2017-2021) which was the master plan for the country’s development. Its main principle was “Development on the basis of man centered” which aimed to build a good quality of life for the Thai people together with the code of conduct. Besides, they must be able to adapt and develop themselves to cope with various rapid changes in the 21st century and impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. Phitthayapongsakorn (2021) stated about big problems encountered in Thai education from the point of view of the Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) which includes the following: 1) low quality education of Thai students; 2) inequality in literacy capability between students in urban area and those in rural areas; and 3) low efficiency in educational facilitation-students who spend much time in studying but learning achievement falls under unsatisfactory level. Besides, it is found that there are two main trends that have impacts on Thai education as follows:

1. Change of Thai population structure: At present, Thailand has low birth rate successively which leads to an aging society and it has an effect on Thai education. Famous and popular educational institutes are competitive and those who can enter into and afford to pay for good education would scramble to these institutes. Others would find institutions that match their affordability and capability. Moreover, the decrease in the number of students is an opportunity for the government to invest in education less than before and it helps supplement quality education. Nowadays, the Thai government allocates big budgets for public health more than before since Thailand is becoming to be an aging society.

2. Technological disruption: Due to increased roles of technology, current learning may not be consistent with the needs of workforce in the future which has an effect on Thai education as follows:

1) Adjustment of learning goals to capability building: Technology causes changes of learning a lot such as learning outside the classroom and new educational channels. Hence, the educational system must be adapted to be consistent with technology development. Students are required to learn through utilization of data rather than memorization. Besides, Thailand and many other countries begin to change indicators on learning.

2) Increasing skills of working people and lifelong learning: Technology has an effect on Thai workforce and needed skills of workforce market have changed. That is, current workforce is risky to be replaced by technology.

Phanthasen et al. (2015) synthesized a research on problems and suggestions in the process of Thai educational facilitation, an issue on the problem of educational quality of Thai education although there are educational reforms contained in the 8-11 National Social and Economic Development Plan. In recent years up to the present, Thai education lags behind its ASEAN counterparts. According to the International Institute for Management Development (IMD), Thailand ranks 26th out of 58 countries in terms of the competency in reading, mathematics, and science. This is due to the following: 1) curriculum management mainly decided by the central; 2) educational and problem solving is mainly decided by the central office, 3) personnel management at the regional level is inappropriate in terms of disqualified personnel; 4) budget management is not able to keep up with the situation; 5) unreadiness of educational personnel; 6) unreadiness of the school administrator in terms of responsibility and poor academic performance; and 7) unreadiness of local teachers in terms of quality. Tirapanyo (2018) and Poungsuk et al. (2020) claimed that the problem in Thai educational facilitation is complicated in many aspects such as budget allocation, educational policy, educational curriculum, educational personnel, new technology, access to educational rights and local tradition harmony. According to these problems, it is found that factors such as lack of agriculture teachers, media of educational technology, agricultural expects, farm personnel, enough budget, etc. have an impact on agricultural education. On a higher level, problems are mostly focused on managerial administration at the curricular program and a decrease in the number of students.

GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION MANAGMENT

As partially mentioned in the previous topics about the problems and obstacles in educational management and agricultural education, it must be with the changes that occur in the overall system. However, there are some differences in details of each level and the pattern of agricultural education management on the agricultural education system's missions, as shown in Figure 1.

The linkage and transfer of manpower in the development of the educational management system corresponds to mission and responsibility. The guideline for managing agricultural education at the primary level is mainly focused on developing teachers in agricultural areas and a set of simple learning tools in line with the context and the environment of the school. The establishment of an agricultural learning center in the school is an example that is simple and can improve the quality of teachers, students, and those interested in the community (Saduak et al., 2019, Poungsuk et al., 2018). Similarly, the agricultural learning center in the community is a link between the center and the community. Nowadays, many modern agricultural learning centers have been managed to easily access information through digital systems and online communication e.g., Learning Center on Living Agriculture, and Organic Learning Center (Poungsuk, 2018). This paper focuses on the management of agricultural education to develop agricultural workforce and related occupations as they are the main force of national development.

According to Poungsuk, et.al. (2020) and Deekor (2019) the critical components for success and sustainability in the management of agricultural vocational education can develop the quality of the agricultural workforce. A quality agricultural institution (Smart Agricultural Institution) should have the following essential components: 1) the school administrators; 2) the teachers; 3) a farm for educational with farming practice purposes and farm value-added for Agriculture Entrepreneurship Education (AEE); 4) administration and management strategies; 5) appropriate technology on management, production, processing, and marketing; 6) curriculum and instructional management (Smart Curriculum); 7) local community and resources; 8) human and resource management for educational management; 9) conducive learning environment; 10) career motivation; and 11) communication, agriculture innovation and technology with management. With these components, the agricultural institutes can produce graduates with the characteristics of being a Smart Farmer, a new generation entrepreneur (Start-Up business)/ SME, a quality graduate (a Smart Graduate). They can also be a Smart Institution, and an Integrated Smart Collaboration (ISC).

Guidelines for promoting the management of agricultural vocational education to be successful should include at least the following: 1) development of leaders/ administrators of agricultural vocational schools to be leaders of change and have good governance; 2) establishment of a practice of corporate culture and philosophy of organization loyalty; 3) development of teachers to keep up with the changes; 4) promotion and development of farm work to be a complete educational farm work, consistent with the occupation in the area, with suitable farm size,  to be a modernand complete farm; 5) promotion and development of farm work for adding value back to school development; 6) promotion of agro-industry work to add value and promote the expansion of farm production in educational institutes and communities; 7) promotion of learning t new management and marketing in line with economic, technological and social changes; 8) management of strategic educational institutions corresponding to the vision and development of educational management of the country and the world; 9) communication and public relations, easy access and timely change; 10) promotion and participation of networks and communities; 11) promotion of the establishment of curriculum and the development of teaching and learning in accordance with the occupation and local service; 12) development of a specific assessment system relevant to the school realities; 13) incubation of students to see career progress; 14) establishment of a system of parental assistance or parental participation in the management of authentic learning relating to agriculture and related careers; 15) creation of career attraction; 16) provision of an environment conducive to modern learning and future jobs, and 17) development of a creative resource management system and add strategic human value.

All the 17 guidelines follow the National Education Plan for the year 2017 – 2036 (Office of the Education Council, 2017). The Plan has established a policy for the development of the country's education in line with the advancement in information and communication technology leapfrogging the economic and social systems of countries and regions and the world, namely: 1) Digital revolution towards the transition to the Industrial Revolution 4.0; 2) Global Community Contract: From the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 2015) to the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (SDGs 2030); and 3) the integration of the sufficiency economy philosophy into all-round development from upstream, middle stream, and downstream.

Besides, the development of agricultural education must focus on the development of skills in the 21st- century, namely 3Rs x 8Cs, the desire characteristics of Thai children in the future by: 1) 3Rs: Reading, Writing and Arithmetic (Arithmetic); and 2) 8Cs: 1) critical thinking and problem-solving skills, 2) creativity and innovation, 3) cooperation skills and teamwork leadership (collaboration, teamwork, and leadership), 4) skills in understanding the differences of paradigm culture (cross-cultural understanding), 5) communication skills, information and communication (Communications, information and media literacy), 6) computer skills, information and communication technology (Computing and media literacy), 7) career and learning self-reliance, and 8) compassion, and the education 5.0 as shown in Figure 2.

These requirements are in line with Phitthayapongsakorn (2021) and EPRS (2017) guidelines for enhancing problem-solving skills based on 21st-century skills in core curriculum and other courses on educational management, agricultural education courses, and a life-long learning education. These curricula have been developed as lifelong farming training, network to lifelong for farmers, knowledge needs of young farmers, and standard agricultural policy support for knowledge transfers and innovation, such as having organized a series of courses through cooperation between educational institutions from primary, vocational, and tertiary levels, etc. (Panyakom et al., 2020). This cooperation changes standard-based education to competency-based education to promote learning suited to the future world and to prepare for adaptation to enhance lifelong learning skills. Even after graduation, there should be a continuous improvement, and it can be said that “Agriculture is the science of happiness and Agricultural Education promotes lifelong learning” (Poungsuk, 2020b). It is crucial to provide sustainable agricultural education apart from adhering to the philosophy of agricultural education. There is also a proposal to integrate the philosophy of the sufficiency economy into a guideline for sustainable development, in line with the adherence to the SDGs (Phungpracha, 2017, Bunnak et al., 2021) (Figure 2).

CONCLUSION

Providing education for workforce development in the country is a critical mission for the development of the country to advance in line with the rapid and all-around changes. Whether it is a change in economics, social, political, legal, technology, communication, and the environment, the management of education for the development of the workforce is an essential factor in both development and destruction. The management of education must be based on principles of sustainable development, which is the same for all countries of the world. It can be seen that the government is developing quickly and its people are living well. The stability is due to the excellent education provided to the citizens as well. Thailand has made many reforms in education to keep up with the changing world in which the management of agricultural education is the same. There is education management that is consistent with the national education plan. There are three main types of education: 1) formal education; 2) non-formal education; and 3) informal education by organizing agricultural education in the occupation groups, basic education level, management of agricultural vocational education at the vocational level, and agricultural education at the tertiary level. The management of education is consistent and sends students in order until they graduate to effectively pursue a career in agriculture and related professions. In addition to that, there is a change of knowledge when learners gain more experience, thus creating informal learning for the professional development and individual preferences under the principles of agricultural education on practical learning and integrating the philosophy of sufficiency economy to develop a sustainable lifestyle.

Problems of agricultural education management at each level arise according to the changes happening in the world. And national policies aimed at developing the capacity of citizens to have the knowledge and skills that are up to the change taking into account the skills of citizens of the 21st century, rapid change, and the power generation of technology. Regarding agricultural education, the management of agricultural education must be consistent with the changes that cause obstacles to development, such as changes in population structure related to the aging society, white collar jobs, and technology.

Guidelines for the management of agricultural education to achieve sustainability follow the philosophy of agricultural education management that learning is achieved through constant practice. There is also a proposal to integrate the sufficiency economy philosophy into a guideline for sustainable development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals' adherence (SDGs). Also, focusing on developing and bringing technology into the country's education system match the era of Thailand 5.0 to create agricultural innovation. However, agricultural education management must be in line with both the National Social and Economic Development Plan and the National Education Plan. It could be said that interesting policies must focus on education management in the context of agricultural education at each level. In general, essential elements of education management must be developed, including educational institutions, educational personnel resources to support education management system curriculum, including cooperation in various forms, etc. The guidelines for the management of agricultural education at each level have the following proposals.

1. The primary level may lead to the establishment of agricultural learning centers in schools and communities to be used as authentic media to develop basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes, inspire learners, and develop potential of teachers at the same time.

2. The agricultural vocational level should emphasize agricultural farm operations, agricultural learning centers, relevant professional organizations, agricultural innovation, and technology center cooperation system, etc., to develop students’ knowledge, skills, and experience for an efficient career as well as developing the potential of teachers and educational personnel at the same time.

3. The tertiary level should focus on developing knowledge and innovation that keeps pace with the change with the development of research institutes, Innovation and Technology Center Cooperation Center, etc., including the transfer and accessibility of knowledge for the country’s development in various ways, etc.

The policy of agricultural education management to be sustainable in the future can be achieved with expectations. The destination of agricultural education in Thailand is Smart Agricultural Education System, Smart Agricultural Institution, Smart Curriculum, Smart Teaching Technique, Smart Integrated Collaboration, Networking Approach, Smart Graduate, Smart Farmers, and Smart Start-Up/SME, Smart Agriculture Entrepreneurship Education (AEE), etc. under Smart cooperation together with the  government, private, community, local administrative organizations, and establishment agencies or international organizations, etc.

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