Let’s Start GAP (Good Agricultural Practice)

Let’s Start GAP (Good Agricultural Practice)

Published: 2017.12.28
Accepted: 2017.12.28
JC General Research Institute, Japan

This leaflet introduces you “The management package for agricultural production (GAP)”, which has increasingly attracted to agricultural industries.

To begin with, please answer the following questions:

Q1 (food safety): What happens to your farm if the products shipped from your farm don’t meet the pestiside residue standard?

Q2 (Farm work safety): What happens to your family and to your farmland if you become unable to work caused by the on farm accidents?

Q3 (About the environmental protection): How your children and younger generations think if you contaminate river and groundwater with agricultural chemicals and fertilizers?

Why do you have to introduce GAP?

Are you a trusted producer of farm products?

It’s farmers’ responsibility to produce safe products.

If one of farmers in the area fails to meet safety issues, the area’s all products sales will be affected. The shipping may be stopped and/or the products already on sale may have to be returned.

It may effect on the future marketing of products from the area.

It is necessary to create a system in the area to prevent causing problems on products’ safety .

Reduce accidents occurred by farm works


A lot of accidents have occurred during working on the farm. About 400 people die by on farm accidents every year. Every farmer and farm workers should check their safety issues and should be more aware of preventing on-farm accidents.

Pass the next generations good farmland and clean water


Agriculture supplies not only agricultural products, but also has important roles to protect land and the natural environment and to transfer cultural assets.

On the other hand, agriculture may harm the natural environment. In order to pass good farmland and clean water to the next generations, it is necessary to operate an environmentally friendly farming.

GAP is the effective way to light up the problems of the area and to prevent accidents in the area.


GAP is a cycled process of practice, keep records, check and improve, based on the rules to prevent shipping suspension or on farm accidents.


Guideline of GAP

If you and your area are considering to introduce GAP, try making your area’s rules to fulfil following items

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MAFF) has shown a guidelines of items which farmers are legally required to follow. Here is an example of GAP on producing vegetables*.

*MAFF has publised guidelines for rice, wheat, fruits, tea, feed crops, other products (for food and for non-food products). You can obtain the guidelines from MAFF’s website: http://www.maff.go.jp/j/seisan/gizyutu/gap/index.html


Food safety


What to do (general outline)

Check the surroudings of the field.

Hygiene control.

Stop contamination of products from field and surroundings( soil, darty water, etc.), waste and farmimg materials.

Usage of chemicals




Don’t use unregistered chemicals.

Check and follow the instruction of how to use whenever use the chemicals.

Avoid bad effect from chemicals to the nearby fields.

Usage of water


Check the source of water. Take actions when the water is found to be contaminated.

Usage of fertiliser and

culture fluid

Use full matured compost if you apply it in producing fresh vegetables.

As for nutriculture, take necessary measures to prevent from contamination of culture fluid.

Hygiene control of workers

Do proper hygiene control of workers.

Secure hand-wash station and toilet for workers and  manage them hyginically.

Hygiene control on machinary, buildings and containers


Keep farm machinary hygienic.

Make the area for preparation and packing of the products in good structure and hyginic.

Use safe and clean containers. 

Handling of products after harvest



Keep appropriate temperature for storage and transportation of products.

Prevent tampering in products while harvesting, preparing and sorting of products.




























Environmental protection


What to do (general outline)

Reduce the adverse effect of agricultural chemicals



Use right amount of chemicals (Don’t use too much).

Try to make the farm environment tolerant to desease and pests.

Introduce desease and pest control convining chemicals with other methods. 

Reduce the adverse effect of fertilisers



Use fertilisers based on the soil diagnostics of farmland and the prefectural guidelines for fertilising.

Use matured compost in order to prevent the invasion of immigrant weeds.

Soil management



Good management of soil by supplying organic materials such as manure.

Take measures to diminish the soil erosion.

Proper treatment and reuse of waste


Proper treatment of farm waste.

Avoid improper burning of farm waste.

Recycle the organic matters such as residue of products.

Saving energy use

Saving energy use of machinerly and grass house.

Proper handling of specific alien species

Get permission and treat properly when use Bombus Terrestris.

Harmful birds and mammals control

Control harmful birds and mammals to prevent  damages on farm.
























Workers’ safety


What to do (Outline)

Get the picture of dangerous works 

Get the picture of dangerous works on farming practices.

Restrict the workers who involve on dangerous works

Restrict the workers who involve on dangerous works such as works using machines and of high-place works.

Wear appropriate cloth and use protective equipments

Stock and utilize appropriate cloth and protective equipments in order to assure workers’ safety.

Improve working emvironment

Improve working environment to avoid  possible  accidents.

Checkup, maintenance and repair the machineries

Check the safety equipments of machineries. Check the machines before use, maintain them after use and repair them properly.

Using machineries

Use machineries in an appropriate manner.

Management of agricultural chemicals and fuels

Appropriate management of agricultural chemicals and fuels.


Prepare for when accidents occurs

Buy insurance in order to maintain agricultural production after the accidents.




















General issues



Protection and use of skills and knowledge (intellectual asset)

Protect and use your own skills and knowledge (intellectual asset).

Treat registered variety in a right manner.

Keep records  


Keep records of the location and size of farmland.

Keep records of usage of agricultural chemicals and fertilizers.

Keep the purchase slips of seeds, seedlings, compost, fertiliser, chemicals and other materials.

Keep records of the shipment of farm products.

Operate the management of production process

Operate the management of the production process by following the steps as below:

  1. Make a plan to use farm, including farm production plan. Then specify the item to be checked based on the plan.
  2. Keep records of farming.
  3. Do self-inspection based on the item to be checked using the record of farming. Keep the record of self-inspection.
  4. Identify the items which needed to be improved. Improve the items.
  5. In addision to the self-inspection, introduce the inspection by second party (such as your customers) and/or third party(such as certifying bodies).  

Records retension period

As for the records shipping of vegetables, keep them for 1-3 years ( reflects the marketing systems of the products).

As for the other products, keep the records for the periods along with the requests from your customers.


Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MAFF) subsidize the cost when the production area is introducing GAP

- Subsidize the introduction of GAP which is in line with the Ministry’s guideline.(Examples of subsidized projects)

Organize workshops to promote the understanding of GAP by farmers.

Have meetings to introduce GAP into the production areas.

- Subsidize the projects to improve the earning capacity of the area by using GAP(Examples of subsidized projects)

Using softwares which will support GAP operations.

Set up core facilities and analytical equipments necessary to operate GAP.


For further information for the introduction of GAP, please consult to your local agricultural advisory offices or visit MAFF’s website.



Date submitted: Dec. 28, 2017

Reviewed, edited and uploaded: Dec. 28, 2017